The city by decade: an overview of its history, selecting some highlights of its different aspects, covered in more detail in their respective sections in the exhibition.
This is the panel that represents a general timeline of Paraty from 1945 to 2019
It consists of 7 panels. In each of the panels, 4 imaginary horizontal lines were created to divide the information. In the 1st, 3rd and 4th lines, boards of different sizes, formats and colors are distributed, containing events and their respective years, in addition to pertinent images of photos, documents, newspapers, magazines, objects, map and logo. This information and images present several topics and speak of forms of expression such as visual arts, cinema, performing arts, literature, music, tradition, bohemia and biodiversity, as well as historical and natural heritage, recognition and preservation of urban evolution and intangible heritage such as parties, knowledge, community, everyday life and tourism. The 2nd line in each panel contains a single frame with main text that forms a sequential narrative in time, according to the time of the panel, continuing in the next panel.
urban: 1,554 rural: 8.119
1950 - Estrela da manhã (Morning Star) Movie, film by Oswaldo Marques de Oliveira featuring Dorival Caymmi
in the cast, it is the first film to be shot on location in the city.
1954 - Foundation of the Santa Cecilia Band: from two rival bands at the beginning of the century, the city was left without one. the city was left without one; the remaining musicians taught new ones, and the tradition resumed.
1958 - Bar do Abel opened that year, soon becoming the center of bohemia, the favorite spot for artists favorite spot for artists who began to frequent the city.
1958 -The poetry book Praia do Sono, José Kleber's first, published by Livraria São José,
Rio de Janeiro, is released
The first official recognition of the uniqueness of Paraty's heritage, the state title
of Historical Monument, for the exceptional historical and artistic value of
its architectural and urbanistic complex, seemed to matter little in the face of its reality. The oblivion and isolation - with access only by sea, depending on the not always reliable speedboat - meant preservation and decadence, with the latter threatening the former.
The city's ruin, outside the mirages of progress, was expressed in the collapse of houses, in the voids that
The city's ruin, on the margins of the mirages of progress, was expressed in the collapse of two-story houses, in the voids they left, in the poor state of conservation of the churches, the Santa Casa
and other once-impressive buildings, the intransitable bridges and roads, and the stagnant economy.
The few news they gave, the newspapers of the time about the city, now a monument.
They insisted only on this: The city that died is the headline of one of them.
Still, the population - if reduced by lack of opportunities - persisted in keeping the local culture alive and vibrant, especially in the annual cycle of large religious and community celebrations.
(although some saw these as another sign of irremediable backwardness), as well as in the pride of their small town's
the beauty of its small town among the breathtaking scenery of sea, forest, and mountains. It deserved the extension of its recognition, when it also became a national heritage site in 1958.
But it would be the land access - the Paraty-Cunha road finally
passable in 1954 - that would really make the difference, and the changes would begin.
1945 -Paraty is established as a historical monument of the State of Rio de Janeiro by
Federal Intervenor Ernani do Amaral Peixoto, through Decree-Law No. 1450 of
September 18, 1945
1945 - Installation of the São Jorge loudspeaker service: local (births, deaths
festivals, etc.) and national, as well as soccer games, are spread throughout the city
1954 -Opening of the Paraty-Cunha Road, resuming the connection with the Paraíba Valley,
although difficult to transit: increase of commerce and the beginnings of tourism
1958 - Preservation of the architectural complex of Paraty by DPHAN (current IPHAN)
urban: 3.014 rural: 9.071
1960 -The painter Djanira buys a two-story house in the city, and later builds a studio in
Corumbê; one of the first of several artists to settle or spend time in the city.
1963 - José Kleber opened the nightclub he called Valhacouto, competing
in the bohemian scene with Bar do Abel.
1967 - Released the 33rpm compact disc Serenata em Paraty, with 5 songs of his own
interpreted by him.
1968 –Brasil ano 2000, feature film by Walter Lima Jr, begins the cycle of films made by directors of Cinema Novo in the city. Two years later, Nelson Pereira dos Santos directs Azyllo Muito Louco the first of his three films shot in Paraty.
Besides Paraty-Cunha, another long-promised road would also be completed, the connection
with Angra dos Reis - although even more difficult, with rivers to be crossed on precarious bridges or even fords. This was enough, however, for adventurers from both sides to travel
both sides, curious to discover this beginning of Brazil, whose heritage they had vague news
(for those from Rio de Janeiro, more precise news, through the poet José Kleber). in greater numbers, those coming from São Paulo.
The simple old town in the middle of a wonderful landscape, plus the authenticity of its traditions so well preserved (to instigate their appreciation and revaluation also by the paratienses): on the whole, the environment of the city attracts musicians, artists and writers who find in it a favorable climate for their inclinations (IBGE notes in a monograph about the city in 1967). Many people buy houses and townhouses and remodel them, for their weekends and vacations. Intellectuals, artists, bohemians, alternatives, or (later) simply hippies: thus begins, almost inadvertently, the tourism in Paraty. The first hotel, with apartments, is opened and newspapers and magazines published the first reports presenting Paraty as a destination to be visited.
1960 – Commemoration of the third centennial of emancipation, with a grand parade created by José Kleber and teacher Benedita Calixto: The auto dos alevantados, transmitted by the loudspeaker service, highlighting each group as the parade went on. Seven years later, due to a historical reevaluation, the city would again celebrate its 300th anniversary.
1965 -Theophilo Rameck and his son Douglas inaugurate the Motel dos Candeeiros. Although there were existed other accommodations, it was the first hotel with apartments in town.
1966 - Paraty is elevated to the condition of National Monument by Decree No. 58.077, of March 24, 1966.
1967 – UNESCO technician Michel Parent visits Paraty, dedicating an extensive section to it in the report of his mission to Brazil. The following year, the Belgian architect Frederic de Llimburg Stirum, working for UNESCO and SPHAN, prepares the Master Plan for the Protection and Urban Development of Paraty.
1976 –Released the 33rpm compact disc Ciranda de Paraty, a sound document produced by the campaign for the defense of Brazilian folklore with master Chiquinto da Tarituba
1976 - Aquarius Project presents a concert of the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra under conductor Isaac Karabtchevsky on a stage set up in front of the Rosário Church
These changes are viewed with some apprehension by SPHAN, leading it to consider the architectural and natural heritage under imminent threat of suffering irreparable deformation, and the federal government to elevate Paraty to National Monument. The decree also provides for the elaboration of an adequate urban plan, studies and measures for the preservation of the forest heritage, and also a plan to increase tourism. After all, it was in this decade that UNESCO decided that tourism was the solution for any viable chance of preservation of the cultural heritages of humanity: and it is in this sense the recommendations made by its technicians in missions to Brazil, which included Paraty. And an urban plan was in fact created; if received with disconcert and sceptism, it would influence those who would come after - already counting with the impact of a development that would make the so difficult access to Paraty just another memory.
- Paraty: impressões, by Harry Roitman
– Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, by Pedro Rovai
- O acendedor de lampiões
- and the institutional one about the opening of Rio-Santos
Paraty in 1970: lyrical, documentary, fictional visions - and the opening of Rio- Santos]
The beginning of the decade brought a cultural effervescence partly fermenting in the previous one, expressed especially in the films of the great figures of the Cinema Novo, with wide participation of people from Parati in various aspects of its realization, but not only. Those were the heaviest years of the dictatorship and its repression, which, if it had echoes (sometimes caricatures) here, did not prevent the perception of the city as a paradisiacal refuge for artists and an entire counterculture atmosphere, also characterized as a resistance modality, incorporated by the local youth. One breathed more freely, in the odd landscape by the sea and in nature, far from the oppression of the big centers.
1971 - the actress Maria Della Costa opens the Coxixo Hotel. The following year, it is the turn of the Pousada Pardieiro, owned by the actor Paulo Autran and the lawyer Fabio Villaboim
1971 - Creation of the Serra da Bocaina National Park in order to protect the Atlantic Forest against the effects of the construction of the Rio-Santos highway that begins in the region.
1974 - Opening of Rio-Santos highway
urban: 9.000 rural: 11.622
1976 - Temilthon Tavares creates Guarda a chave no trombone, an amateur street theater group in which the texts were collective creation, integrated mainly by people from Paraty
1978 - Creation of the Museum of Sacred Art at Santa Rita Church
At the same time, the Rio-Santos highway was being built. Even before its effective opening to traffic, another pressure, locally much more overwhelming, already attacked this same landscape and the traditional ways of life associated with it: real estate speculation. Miraculous projects of tourist developments and land parcels were idealized, some of which were forcibly materialized; land conflicts, often violent, were instaurated, lasting even today. Entire caiçara families and villages sold at degrading prices, or lost their land by the sea to land-grabbers; and moved to the city, creating to the south an expansion that was completely unexpected in the urbanistic plans that followed: the Ilha das Cobras and Mangueira neighborhoods.
And the small town, bucolic and bohemian, suddenly finds itself losing its guarantee of a paradise destined only for those fortunate enough to persevere in facing the difficulties of getting there - and that with those who were already there in some way understood each other, establishing a dialogue between tradition and contemporaneity to stimulate the local cultural life -, to be faced with an unprecedented ease of access, both from Rio and São Paulo, with tourism in fact appearing to be a much more complicated reality than it had been desired. This time, the reaction came from the Paratienses themselves (with those of adoption collaborating): the creation of an institution to preserve their heritage, the movement to close the center to vehicles, the first seminar to discuss the future of Paraty.
1976 -Vehicular traffic on the streets in the center is definitively interdicted: all entrances to the center are closed off with chains
1976 - Foundation of IHAP - Historical and Artistic Institute of Paraty
1979 - The Paraty Seminar is held in partnership between the City Hall, IPHAN, INEPAC and the Friends of Paraty Society, with the support of Roberto Marinho Foundation, from August 30th to September 1st)
1980- 1st Meeting of Street Theater in Paraty and 1st Meeting of Visual Artists in Paraty
1981 - 1st Film Festival of Paraty
1981 - Marcos and Raquel Ribas of the theater group Contadores de Estórias move to Paraty
Paraty; in 1984, they make O Modo de Fazer, a pioneer research on Paraty handicrafts;
in 1985, they set up Espaço Theater.
1983 - Gabriela, a film by Bruno Barreto
1984 - First classical music festival in Paraty, which in 1986 would lead to the 1st Sacred Music Festival
1989 - SOMBANERJ: festival de música erudita, popular brasileira, e instrumental e jazz
The cultural effervescence ends up consolidating itself in the realization of numerous festivals, focused on different artistic manifestations and also on the appreciation of the city's main product, the cachaça, for its tradition and importance in the history of the city. There are meetings, exhibitions, and festivals of street theater, classical and sacred music, plastic arts, photography, and cinema - and the first Festival da Pinga. The creation of the Teatro Espaço by the group Contadores de Estórias (which had settled in the city after getting to know it at the first Street Theater Meeting), with a relevant program of performing arts and music in its first years, and the Galeria Maramar, by Zilco Ribeiro, as a counterpoint to the Galeria do Engenho attached to Bar do Abel, as well as the continuity of films being shot in the city (Gabriela stands out for its cast and repercussion), are also part of this first cultural cycle of Paraty. Tourism intensifies: new bars and restaurants are opened, as well as inns and hotels, from the luxury category to the first youth hostel, settling in renovated properties in the Historical Center, but above all being built in the neighborhoods where the city was expanding: Patitiba, Fátima and Pontal; Chácara da Saudade, then considered the noble area of the city; and Cabore, along the Pereque-açu river bank. It was, however, a tourist destination that could be called alternative: the heritage itself, plus the vague news of its cultural background, as well as its shallow and muddy beaches at the bottom of the bay, only inspired those willing precisely to experience that bohemian atmosphere of its Historic Center framed by the landscape of sea and mountain - it should be remembered that, at the pier, there were no more than half a dozen large boats (then called saveiros), to negotiate with the boatmen of whaleboats to reach islands and beaches; and no itinerary for the waterfalls, knowing them depended on knowing someone local. And if prosperity certainly brought to the city, perhaps not enough for the potential that had been imagined.
1983 - First "Pinga" Festival
1983 - Cairuçu Environmental Protection Area - APA Cairuçu: federal conservation unit for sustainable use, with 34,690 hectares in the continental area and 63 islands in the south of the city.
urban: rural: 9.071
1990 - The Cas da Cultura de Paraty (Paraty House of Culture) is established
1991 - EcoTV is created, a community radio station broadcasting the programs of the Educative TVs and their local production, in which the daily news, that the whole town stopped to watch, stands out
1992 - Luiz Perequê releases the album Encanto Caiçara
1997 - Julia Mann, a life between two cultures, an exhibition at the Casa da Cultura and a program about Thomas Mann's mother, born in Paraty, in partnership with the Goethe Institute
[Nesta década são só 2 parágrafos; usar o espaço restante para composição de imagens]
The institution of the Casa da Cultura de Paraty by the City Hall, in the big house where the club Paratiense Atlético Clube (PAC) used to be based, a lasting result of the whole cultural cycle of the previous decade, unfortunately coincides with a difficult moment for culture in Brazil, the government extinguishing all public cultural policy (FUNARTE, Embrafilme, etc.; besides a generalized confiscation of financial assets), and a movement supported by the media for the valorization of culture exclusively on account of its market acceptance. A whole range of cultural activities in Brazil suddenly ceased, an impact that was evident in the first half of the decade in Paraty.
On the other hand, an unprecedented development occurred: the implementation of EcoTV, a community broadcasting station that, besides relaying the programs of the educational TVs, also produced locally, with emphasis on the daily news that the whole city stopped to watch - which, by addressing its entire reality and giving a public voice to actors that had never been heard before, had a political impact as well, breaking the historical alternation between two mayors since forever. And the new one elected gave a new direction to the municipal administration with a significant impact on tourism and culture - by proposing the necessary articulation between these two aspects as a policy. Perhaps too late, since it was at the end of this decade that the intensification of tourism accelerated, with the first travel agencies and the increasing offer of standard tourist products.
1990: Tamoios Ecological Station - ESEC Tamoios, federal integral conservation unit for monitoring the environment (29 islands, plus coastal areas) around the nuclear power plants
1997 - Marcos Ribas takes over as Secretary of Tourism and Culture, carrying out the first research on tourism in Paraty and a plan for its development, and the first initiatives for the qualification of culture in Paraty and cultural tourism
1992: Creation of the Juatinga Ecological State Reserve by the State Environmental Institute - INEA, covering almost 10,000 hectares in the south of the city
1995 - Guarani Indigenous Land of Araponga ratified by decree. The following year, the Parati-Mirim Indigenous Land is created
1999 - Title conferral of the Quilombo do Campinho by Governor Benedita da Silva
The 21st Century
2004 - After restoration and renovation, the Casa da Cultura de Paraty is reopened with an exhibition about the city created by Bia Lessa
2018 - Ciranda Caiçara de Paraty is recognized as Intangible Cultural Heritage of the State of Rio de Janeiro
Paraty's application for World Heritage status, which had already begun to be talked about in 1979, is the theme of a second seminar held in the city at the beginning of the decade: Planning and World Heritage. Held with the broad participation of specialists from different fields and civil society, it concluded with the recommendation of the candidacy as a Mixed Site - the category in which the inscription on the World Heritage List in 2019 was ultimately obtained. Prior to that, in 2013 the Festa do Divino had been recognized as a cultural heritage site - a result of the evolution of the concept of heritage, expressed in the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, as well as the Ministry of Culture's policy at the same time of valuing the culture of traditional communities, also significant for obtaining the world title.
In 2003 the first FLIP - International Literary Festival of Paraty - was held. With its immense success and repercussion, a second cycle of cultural events was established, with a sequence of festivals of cosmopolitan and/or international character (Paraty em Foco, of photography; Bourbon Festival and MIMO, of music; Folia Gastronômica, among others) adding to the annual cycle of traditional festivals. The Paraty Cultural Calendar was constituted, having a considerable impact on the development of tourism, which would lead to the city's designation as a reference destination in cultural tourism in a Ministry of Tourism program. It also consolidated Paraty's cultural vocation, in the ever-present dialogue between tradition and contemporaneity, permanence and change, creating a unique diversity over the decades of its recent history - of which the current vitality and dynamism can be assessed in more detail in the section dedicated to the 21st century.
2001 - The Planning and World Heritage Seminar is held from November 30 to December 2, by Paraty City Hall and the Roberto Marinho Foundation, with support from IPHAN and broad participation from specialists and civil society, with the aim of preparing Paraty's candidacy
2008 - The city is indicated as a reference destination for Cultural Tourism in a Ministry of Tourism program; the Mar de Cultura plan is developed.
2013 - The Festa do Divino is registered in IPHAN's Book of Celebrations as a National Cultural Heritage.
2019 - Paraty is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as a mixed natural and cultural site, with the denomination Paraty and Ilha Grande: culture and biodiversity.